Indirect Costs (Society/Employers)


Lead Author(s): 

Sylvia I. Watkins-Castillo, PhD

Supporting Author(s): 

Gunnar Andersson, MD, PhD

Indirect costs associated with lost wages for persons ages 18 to 64 years are not calculated for persons with a spine condition However, back pain is often cited as the reason for bed days and lost work days by persons in the labor force. In 2012, 3.6 million persons in the prime working ages of 18 to 64 years reported they were unable to work at the time due to chronic back or neck problems, with another 1.7 million reporting they were limited in the kind or amount of work they can do as a result of chronic back or neck pain. (Reference Table 2.10.2 PDF CSV)

Also, in 2012, 14.2% of the workforce age population reported an average of 7.6 bed days in the previous 12 months, for a total of 170.7 million bed days, due to chronic back or neck pain. In addition, 16.1% of this same population reported an average of 11.4 lost work days in the previous year due to chronic back or neck pain, or more than 290 million work days lost in 2011/2012 due to back pain. (Reference Table 2.11.1 PDF CSV)


  • 2014

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